A Study on enactment and revision of a unified tennis rule of four-schools
 - A viewpoint of the historical study of the unified tennis rule organization of Japan -

Mitsumasa GOTO (Doctoral Program of Health and Sport Science, University of Tsukuba)


  This study is placed for the purpose of clarifying as a key the historical records still published
as much as possible by this time in establishment and revision time of an undecided unification
tennis rule ("four-schools rule"). Moreover, this study carries out the time of enactment and revi-
sion, the contents of the "four-schools rule", and a part of modernization of tennis. Time made into
the object of this study was set from 1904 when the inter-school game of four schools was
started to 19 20 or before when a four school league disappears by adoption of the regulation ball
of the main schools. The result obtained by this study is as follows: 1) It became clear that the
"four-schools rule" was enacted for the first time in the autumn of 1905, and revision of 3 times
was added in 1909, 1911, and 1912.2) Asa result of examination: The Wada theory had made
a mistake in establishment, revision time, and the contents in most Harishige theory was sup-
ported by historical records about the contents, it was wrong in time a little. 3) The "1905 rule"
was promptly created ignited by the advancement of the technique as the confrontation game
between the technical colleges in Tokyo is prosperous, and it was mainly constituted by deploy-
ment of a game, and the regulation about an umpire. With the "1909 revision rule", it succeeds
in a complete revision and the regulation about facilities, implements, and the match method was
further substantial. Then, although it succeeded in 1911 or 1912, and revision, the appearance
followed the "1909 revision rule", and stopped at a detailed change. 4) Each revision of a "four-
schools rule" was generally concerned mainly with correction of a not clear sentence expression,
and solution of many problems produced through the inter-school game. The "four-schools rule"
found out the directivity as a common code exceeding the framework of four schools. The "four-
schools rule" played the role important for modernization of tennis of Japan in that it contributed
to the unification and spread of tennis. It was not such rule as all scenes were assumed. It is pos-
sible to look the play of tennis depending strongly on the contemporary custom. Although it was
negative, it can be considered in the meaning of complementing the "exception" that this is the
process of modernization.