A Study on the Autonomy of Student Baseball and
"Student Baseball Control Regulations"
- Focusing on Tokyo Big 6 University Baseball in 1930s-
(Graduate School of Social Sciences Hitotsubashi University)
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the historical meaning of Student Baseball Control
Regulations (YAKYU TOSEI REL SBCR), which was established by Ministry of Education
(MOE) to make political adjustment to the modernization of sports in Japan at that time
and to "guide" students' thought in the "right" direction (SHISO ZENDO, moral guidance).
To do so, relationships between SBCR and two kinds of autonomy in student baseball, one
is mainly organized by managers, coaches and alumni of student baseball, the other by
players are examined. It tells us how MOE intervened and controlled student baseball un-
der SBCR, how participants of student baseball responded to it, what form of autonomy
they tried to establish, and who were the subjects to do it Based on these facts, I will dis-
cuss the effect of SBCR on student baseball in Japan.
The conclusion of this paper is as follows.
1. Because of fiscal limit, SBCR allowed student baseball to levy admission fee and hold
baseball games which were organized by business companies, while SBCR controlled and
conducted managers, coaches, and teachers concerned with student baseball to remove
"bad" influence of student baseball and to "guide" students' thoughts into the "right" di-
2. The control of student baseball under SBCR repressed the possibility of self-government
by players and other students.
3. To reduce the amount of admission fee and distribution to each school, MOE intervened
student baseball, which was made legal by SBCR.
4. Participants of student baseball resisted intervention of MOE, which led the movement
to establish student baseball control association.
5. As student baseball turned into large-scale and became more organized by the partici-
pants (not players) of student baseball, players who belonged to Tokyo Big 6 Baseball
League resisted managers or "moral guidance" by MOE through baseball.
6. The movement that was aimed at establishing student baseball control association col-
lapsed due to their different perspectives on the relationships between controlling persons
and controlled persons. While this movement shows the sense of autonomy in student
baseball at that time, it also shows that it was preceded by those who didn't take stu-
dents' autonomy into consideration.
Through these processes, Japanese baseball was being organized by the participants of
student baseball, not by the baseball players themselves.