On the historical meanings of 'sparring'
     in the boxing history of the nineteenth century England

       Yoshiaki MATSUI (Nara University of Education)


 It is the history of the famous champions or of the big match records in the bare-knuckle
prize fighting that has been considered in the former studies of boxing history in the nineteenth
century England. But, on the other hand, the style of glove-boxing had been formed in England
since Broughton introduced 'mufflers' around the middle of eighteenth century. That was the
beginning of 'sparring'. It was demonstrated for the upper class by ex-champions or ex-pugilists
as a lesson to learn 'the noble art of self-defence'. And, after 1820s public house, tavern and
sporting house supplied the places for 'sparring \ and it was also performed by students in some
public schools and universities.
 The utilities and justices of boxing insisted through the 'sparring were three following points.
  @The utility as a method of self-defence.
  AThe utility as a healthy exercise.
  BThe justice as one of the athletics to compete the arts of boxing, not to fight
 Therefore the historical meanings of 'sparring' are not only to take boxing-gloves in advance,
but also Rto continue a justice of boxing for practical use till the beginning of this century,
and cto introduce an insistence that boxing is a healthy exercise as a basis of the new justice
of boxing, further Rto take in advance an idea that was asserted to deny a factor of 'fighting'
in the boxing match under the progress of modern boxing style.