A historical study on kakegoe of kendo:
An introduction for a new viewpoint on the study of budo history
Shoji ENOMOTO (Nanzan University)
Kakegoe can be translated into "shouting" in English. In the
matches of the Modern Kendo, various
types of Kakegoe, such as 'Men' 'Kote* lDooy l Yaay 'Too9, have been used.
This study has two purposes. One is to clarify where Kakegoe of Kendo is traced back to, and the
other is to point out the erroneous assumptions in the former studies of Budo history in order to offer
the study of Budo history a new perspective.
The gist of this paper is as follows:
( 1 ) In the Edo period, there were various schools of Kenjutsu with Kakegoe and various ones
without Kakegoe. The KASHIMA-KATORI-SHINTO Schools, for instance, handed down Kakegoe.
On the contrary, the SHINKAGE Schools and the ITTO Schools, which were the mainstream of
Kenjutsu in the Edo period, did not hand it down.
( 2) The main function of Kakegoe of Kenjutsu in the Edo period w7as to increase and display the
spirit of the performer, and was similar to that of the spells in Esoteric Buddhism.
Some acting elements existed in Katas which were practised in the schools of Kenjutsu with Kakegoe
in the Edo period. Because people belonging to these Schools somtimes used Kakegoe for the
purposes of giving their opponents the signs of attacking and of expressing their feelings.
( 3 ) All schools of Kenjutsu with Kakegoe were local in the Edo period; that is to say, Kakegoe was
handed down in the Schools mainly consisting of peasants. Neverthless, their modes of Kakegoe
existed in the Shinai- Uchikomi-Shiai-Kenjutsu which became the mainstream of Kenjutsu by the last
days of the Tokugawa shogunate and was the original form of the Modern Kendo.
( 4 ) It has been considered in the former studies of Kendo history that the Modern Kendo developed
from the ITTO Schools and so on which were the mainstream of Kenjutsu in the Edo period. But,
the history of Kakegoe tells us that the former studies of Kendo history are one sided, and that the
Modern Kendo can be traced back not only to the samurais' Kenjutsu but also to the Peasants'